Translation 7.3 HL

This topic includes some interesting and difficult details about the synthesis of proteins on ribosomes.  While these aspects are difficult they do not need to understood in great detail. One challenge in this topic is to get the right balance between understanding details and making simple notes.


Key words

Learn and test your biological vocabulary for 7.3 Translation using these flashcards.

Clean sweep - quick revision through the whole topic

These slides summarise the essential understanding and skills in this topic. 
They contain short explanations in text and images - good revision for all students.

Read the slides and look up any words or details you find difficult to understand.

Structured question about tRNA

Understanding the structure and function of tRNA is an important skill from this topic.

Answer the question below on a piece of paper, then check your answer against the model answer below.

Outline the structure of a tRNA molecule and how its two binding sites are used during translation.. [3]

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Revision summary list for topic 7.3 Translation

DNA structure

  • Part of DNA supercoiling are structures called Nucleosomes.
  • DNA structure gives a clue to the mechanism of DNA replication.
  • Non-coding regions of DNA have other important functions, limited to regulators of gene expression, introns, telomeres and genes for tRNAs.

DNA replication (in prokaryotes only)

  • DNA polymerase enzymes can only add nucleotides to the 3’ end of a primer.
  • Continuous DNA replication occurs on the leading strand and discontinuous on the lagging strand.
  • A complex group of enzymes do DNA replication including; helicase, DNA gyrase, single strand binding proteins, DNA primase and DNA polymerases I and III.

Crossing over

  • DNA replication makes a second chromatid in each chromosome in interphase before meiosis.
  • Crossing over exchanges pieces of DNA between non-sister homologous chromatids and forms new combinations of alleles on the chromosomes formed in meiosis.

Skills (can you ...)

  • Say how Rosalind Franklin’s and Maurice Wilkins’ X-ray diffraction work gave insights into the structure of DNA.
  • Know that the Sanger method of base sequencing uses nucleotides containing dideoxyribonucleic acid (DNA with deoxyribose missing 2 oxygen molecules) that stops DNA replication at a specific base.
    It allows sequencing using fluorescent markers and computers. (Sanger chain termination. Video here)
  • Say that in DNA profiling Tandem repeats are used as these vary greatly from person to person.
  • Analyse results of the Hershey and Chase experiment providing evidence that DNA is the genetic material. .Graphic
  • Use of molecular visualization software to analyse the association between protein and DNA within a nucleosome

Revision mindmaps

These diagram summaries cover the main details of topic 7.3 Translation.
Study them and draw your own list or concept map, from memory if you can.

Review questions

This quiz contains multiple choice questions covering the understandings and skills in this topic.


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Revision fun activity

Everyone needs a bit of fun while they revise. Try this Translation 7.3  card match game.

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