There is a saying in Votic (a language close to extinction found in the Kingiseppsky region of Russia) Kem kḛrtā, mittā, sīz leikkā, and meaning measure thrice, cut once. A similar proverb can be found in a number of different languages, and can be interpreted broadly as meaning ‘give due consideration before you act’. However, in science the literal translation is very appropriate, because how sure can we be of the measurements we are recording? And what can we reliably conclude from our investigation?

  • Spectroscopic identification

    This section of the course, including mass spectrometry, infra-red spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry is easier to cope with if we have a really strong grasp of organic functional groups and nomenclature.

  • Spectroscopic identification II

    Don't start revising this section of the course until you are confident with Spectroscopic identification 11.3 first, as this section is mostly an extension of the techniques encountered there.

  • Uncertainties, errors and graphs

    There is an extraordinary amount of vocabulary in this section of the course, but once you have got to grips with it all, the application of it is simpler than it at first appears.