Bonding and Structure

Chemical bonding - lasting attraction between particles - is electrostatic in nature (attraction between positive and negative) although the character of the bonding depends on the chemical species involved. Chemical structure is the (microscopic) spatial arrangement of particles, often in repeating patterns, that gives a substance particular macroscopic (large scale) properties.

  • Covalent bonding

    Our model of covalent bonding is based on the Bohr model of the atom. We often think of a covalent bond as a shared pair of electrons (which it is) but be aware of the full definition that needs to be learned!

  • Covalent structure

    Our model of covalent bonding and structure is based on the Bohr model of the atom and represented with Lewis diagrams. Lewis diagrams can be drawn with dots and crosses or with lines that represent a pair of outer-shell (valence) electrons.

  • Further covalent bonding and structure

    There is quite a lot of varied content here. Most of it links to, and develops ideas of, models that we encountered in the covalent bonding and covalent structure sections (4.2 and 4.3).

  • Hybridization

    It is really important that you are confident with your molecular shapes (covalent structure 4.3) and formation of sigma and pi bonds (further aspects of covalent bonding 14.1) before you try to get to grips with hybridization.

  • Intermolecular forces

    Intermolecular forces are the electrostatic attractions between molecules. They tend to be weaker than ionic, covalent or metallic bonds. Intermolecular forces are divided into three types; London dispersion forces, dipole-dipole forces and hydrogen bonds.

  • Ionic bonding and structure

    Our model of ionic bonding is based on the Bohr model of the atom and represented with Lewis (dot-cross) diagrams. Ensure that you know the basics; how to work out the formulae of ionic compounds, including committing to memory the polyatomic ions.

  • Metallic bonding

    This is a short section covering the structure of metals and metal alloys and corresponding properties. The content is relatively straightforward conceptually, but still needs to be learned.