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Atomic, nuclear and particles

This image is a representation of the Standard Model, probably the closest thing we have to a theory of everything, well, everything we know about.

  • Why are solids solid when atoms are mostly empty space?
  • What are the fundamental forces of nature?
  • Why hasn't a single quark ever been observed?
  • Why does releasing energy make a nucleus more stable?


  • Particle interactions

     Particle interactions can be represented by these neat diagrams governed by simple rules. One in one out, 2 straight one wiggly.

  • The structure of matter

    A complex story with a simple ending. A good example of Occam´s razor, the simplest is most likely to be the correct solution, very convenient for physics students.

  • The Standard Model

     Putting fundamental particles into groups forms a very neat pattern that helps us to predict interactions.

  • Binding Energy

     Binding energy is often wrongly defined as the energy that holds a nucleus together. The nucleus is held together by the nuclear force. BE is the energy require to separate the nucleons. BE is not possessed by the nucleus it was released when the nucle

  • Electron energy levels

         The seemingly unconnected observation that the spectrum of low pressure gases are line spectra led to the idea that electron energy is quantized. The similarity between this and the harmonics in a pipe led to the the realisation that particles have w

  • Exponential decay

     An interesting link to maths. How the fact that if the rate of change of something is proportional to the quantity itself then the change is exponential.