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Atomic, nuclear and particles

This image is a representation of the Standard Model, probably the closest thing we have to a theory of everything. At least... everything we know about!

  • Why are solids solid when atoms are mostly empty space?
  • What are the fundamental forces of nature?
  • Why hasn't a single quark ever been observed?
  • Why does releasing energy make a nucleus more stable?


  • Fusion

    The importance of the BE curve can not be emphasised enough. Well actually it can, if you understand how to use it then it has been.

  • Electron energy levels

         The seemingly unconnected observation that the spectrum of low pressure gases are line spectra led to the idea that electron energy is quantized. The similarity between this and the harmonics in a pipe led to the the realisation that particles have w

  • Rutherford model

       It´s impossible to draw an atom without promoting misconception. If the nucleus were a dot the electrons would´t fit on the page.

  • Atomic model

    In this course there are few surprises, experiments usually verify the theory. When Rutherford saw the results of the scattering experiment he was very surprised, the result was not inline with the theory at all. Without surprise results science would not

  • Radioactivity

     Radiation was classified as alpha beta and gamma due to the different properties. Now we know they are Helium nuclei, electrons and photons. Maybe it´s time to drop the Greek labels.

  • Structure of matter

    A complex story with a simple ending. A good example of Occam´s razor, the simplest is most likely to be the correct solution, very convenient for physics students.